Impacts of Global Instabilities on the USA

War is a state of human conflict armed or unarmed characterized by extreme destruction, aggression, and mortality.  World stability therefore based on the mutual existence of all the nations through engagement in activities which are meant to build and promote peaceful co-existence. There are various efforts by some international bodies like United Nations and World Trade Organization which are mandated to enforce policies intended to safeguard international peace and order (Wells, pg. 12). However, there are many activities by some countries which threaten world peace and stability. These activities include conflict of natural resources like water and air space, a difference of ideologies such as socialism or capitalism. This essay will give answers on; how the southerners tried to limit the ex-slaves from exercising their new freedoms after the civil war in the USA. The article will also cover on how urban industrialization affected Americans through the contributions of class, race gender, and ethnicity.  Also, this essay will investigate how the impact of World War I was regarding African American and Mexican movement to the north. Finally, the article will cover on how the American military and diplomatic actions contributed to the defeat of Axis powers; and finally on the comparison of the American involvement in the World War II to that her involvement in Vietnam War.

The American Civil War

The American civil war took place within America between the North and the South. The urge for the continued use of slavery for the production of cotton and other farm products in the south and the sectionalism of the North were the main causes of the civil war because they created high tension between the two sides. Ineffective leadership in preventing and reducing the adverse effects of the war also contributed to the civil war. The election of Abraham Lincoln led to the end of the war that left more than 600,000 people died and significant destruction of the economy (Tylor, pg. 22-24). This was through various legislations like the Thirteenth Amendment which was meant to cure the primary causes of the war like the abolition of slavery and the subsequent creation of uniform laws which were to be followed by all regardless of race or class.

In addition to the removal of the trade, emancipation intended to create an economy whereby the former slaves would be integrated into the US economy and make them full participants in the economy and the nation. This followed further legislations which made the slaves have equal rights and opportunities to exercise their freedom. The Fourteenth and the Fifteenth Amendments to the US construction formally guaranteed former slaves and African Americans with equal rights as the white Americans. The African Americans were also given an opportunity to exercise economic activities officially like any other American citizen. However, the abolition of slavery significantly affected the economy of the south because of the heavily relied on the slaves for the farming of cotton and other farm products. This is because the landowners could no more exploit the free labor of the slaves but hire the freedmen and the poor whites. As a result, the South remained behind in development.

The destroyed economy of the south brought about social unrest between the freedmen and the whites. The whites were thus opposed to the liberation of the slaves for them to continue enjoying the free labor. To counter the aggressiveness of the southern Americans, there was a creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau agency with the aim of protecting the rights of African Americans (Tylor, pg. 67). This Agency enabled the freedmen to find employment and freedom. The agency also persuaded the former slave owners to ensure their liberation and rebuild their cotton plantations with the intention of creating jobs for the African American.

Impact of Industrialization on Americans

Industrialization had high impacts to the Americans outside work. The cultural beliefs were substantially changed as they became intimately tied to socialism and capitalism. As a result, many Americans resorted to labor unions to be given the audience for the widely increased impacts of capitalism. Citizens wanted the Government to limit the operations of capitalist because they misused the poor (Lotysz, pg. 122). Industrialization also led to the growth of the major urban cities which grew as a result of rural-urban migration of people in search of jobs and other services. This resulted in a rapid increase in urban population searching for the few available industrial jobs. People were therefore forced to work under poor working conditions of low pay and unhygienic living. Because of the uncontrolled population increase, diseases sprang up which led to the death of many people.

However, industrial revolution led to improvement in the general life standards of people. Due to mechanization in many sectors, high production of better quality products was facilitated.  The easy availability of goods and services led to the increased health care and overall life expectancy. Industrialization, therefore, enabled the poor and vulnerable people in both the rural and urban areas to get access to excellent services. Means of transportations like roads and railways were also improved thus enabling movement of individuals.

Also, the growth of industries and cities had a great impact on family life. The family, which was initially defined as a production unit changed and the work moved away from home settings (Lotysz, pg.160). Initially, family members were the only workforce in the growing developed industries but with time other labor forces replaced them. This resulted in the formation of current homes which were located at some distance from the industry. Eventually, these developed homes led to the growth of residential estates. Also, gender roles were redefined so that the married men became providers of the family and women domestic specialists. The middle- class had women as chief agents of the family because of their morality standing and devotion in local matters.

Also, economic development led to a shift in work content a factor which substantially changed how families had their leisure. The great businessmen who had fully internalized the new working conditions felt uncomfortable having outside job leisure. The daughters were encouraged to learn how to sing well by taking piano lessons to sing for the family as a form of recreation activity. Moreover, the middle-class people were willing to sponsor some cultural events outside the home as a form of leisure activity. Besides, the middle-class people significantly shaped urban leisure habits as many could absent themselves from a job for them to go for entertainment. To a large extent, race, class, ethnicity and gender have significantly defined the operations of the urban space regarding bringing inequality in various spheres of life. These factors account for the concentration of poverty in different areas where there are people from the races deemed to be inferior.

 

The Great Northern Migration in the USA

The ww1 resulted in the mass movement of both the African Americans and Mexicans from the South to the North (Carrillo, pg. 25). This movement was facilitated by the increase of racial and ethnic discrimination by the Southerners against the Mexicans and African Americans. Also, another cause for moving North was the competitive factors like segregation, increase in racism and widespread violence in the South that led to deteriorating relationship between the African Americans and the Americans. Another cause for the upward movement was the high need of labor in the Northern industries available for the African Americans in railroads, steel mills, and the automobile industry. The action was favored by the special incentives tailored to encourage black workers to relocate from the South and take the Northern industrial jobs. The southerners also moved north due to the oppressive conditions such as bad legal systems, inequality in education and lynching of the south.

The World War 1 caused a significant shortage of labor in the North because of the lost contact between the America and countries in Europe that were the necessary supply of labor (Carrillo, pg.35). The war also left more than 6000 people died most of whom working in the industries.  Besides, the war also left caused a significant agricultural disaster in the South which led to chronic underemployment. The high numbers of unemployed people in the South attracted the industrialists of the North who came up with better deals and for job opportunities in their industries.

The great Northern movement led to increasing great changes to both the migrants and the nation as a whole. Population in cities increased resulting to their tremendous growth. Cities like New York, Philadelphia, Detroit and much more grew so fast due to the increased numbers of migrants from the South. The larger number of migrants brought about a corresponding increase in need of public facilities like hospitals, schools, recreational areas and transport system. The growing number of public services translated to the overall development of the nation.  Apart from the benefits that the movement brought, there was also negative events which were introduced by the uncontrollable increase in population. There was growing competition for living space in the urban areas leading to overcrowding and establishment of informal settlements to contain the population.

The WWII and its impacts on the USA.

WWII was made a reality after the Japanese bombed the Pearl Harbor of USA navy. The bombing awakened public opinion which had been anticipating in entering into the war. The attack on the harbor immediately promoted the unity of the Americans in preparation for a retaliatory attack on the Japanese (Hawes, pg. 22-25). The bombing acted as an agent for raising American solidarity in the war, a factor which made it possible for the consistent efforts taken by the Allied Powers. The day after the attack, the USA President Franklin Roosevelt addressed a joint session of the Congress where he declared war on the Empire of Japan.

In support for the war, the Government made both diplomatic and military contributions which acted as an aid in defeating the Axis powers. The government made a declaration of changing into a war economy by starting distributing weapons and supplies to the Soviet Union and the British Empire in preparation for attacks on Japan. This disclosure and the provision of weapons for the war helped in overpowering the Axis countries. There was also the formation of an alliance of the USA with Great Britain, Soviet Union, and China.

The USA government undertook various diplomatic measures like putting an embargo on Japan which denied her supply of oil, airplane fuel and war materials. This undermined the strength of the Japanese during the war. Besides, USA held three conferences which were intended to limit war plans of the Axis powers. The first was Tehran conference of 1943 which was to lay down a proposed strategy for defeating Nazi Germany and Allies. The second was Yalta conference of 1945 which discussed final plans on how to bring down Germany, plans for uniting Europe after the war and setting the United Nations conference date. The third was Potsdam conference of 1945 which covered on unconditional surrender for Japan and military occupation and reconstruction of Germany (Hawes, pg.40-50).

Also, the USA undertook various military actions which assisted the other Allied powers in defeating the Axis countries. The first was the battle of Midway. Japan entered Midway with the intention of seizure, but the USA realized the plans and made quick military attack defeating the Japanese. This gave the US confidence of seizing the Pacific which was crucial in taking control of the Axis powers. The second was military tactics. The US used Island Hopping strategy of moving from island to island while capturing key positions. There was also shifting to the military strategy of attacking Japan instead of the continuation on Germany front. Besides, there was a creation of a War Production Board which was responsible for the massive production of weapons of war. All these efforts by the USA helped boost the strength of Allied forces against the Axis.

Public sentiments on the comparison of WWII and the Vietnam War

Finally, there are various public sentiments on the differences of US involvement in WW2 and that of Vietnam. The most dramatic difference is the way the Americans felt about the wars. After the WW2 Americans termed it a ”Good War” because they had won it. However, it was different when it came to Vietnam War since the war was so costly and took an extended period. Also, the Vietnam War was one of the most shocking events to have ever happened in the American history (Tames, pg. 44). This is because Vietnam was a third-world country but still defeated the US. In contrast with the Vietnam War, WW2 was won, and everybody was happy and satisfied the war was fair. Another difference was that Vietnam was more controversial and was just a mistake as it lacked the patriotism that was symbolized by the WWII.

Conclusion.

The United States of America was the biggest winner of the WW2 because of the immense support to the Allied powers of China, Soviet Union and Great Britain. The war gave all participating nations a lesson of developing their military personnel concerning improving their skills to enable them to cushion any probable security threat. This saw various innovations which have significantly transformed the world security. The aftermath of WW2 was strengthening of the United Nations by forming the United Nations Security Council responsible for checking global security. All these measures have assisted in improving world security by preventing adverse wars, you can read about this in the war essay to find out more.

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